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Please do not remove it. Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
You can search through the full text of this book on the web at http: This volume is edited by Mr. Otbcv iJtscmbcxB ot Council. Roosdyche and Torkington Moat.
Oakmere and Eddisbury Camp. By Fletcher Moss, J. By the Right Rev. By Thomas May, F. Roeder Austrian Domination in Wurtemberg, Earl of Liverpool Portrait.
The Ballroom, "Little Moreton Hall. Sir Francis Ottley and Family. The Back of Baddesley Clinton. Front 77 Sketch Plan -. WHEN men ceased to build castles because their castles could soon be battered down by cannon balls they trusted for a temporary defence to moats around their halls, and for a hurried refuge there were secret rooms where the hunted one could hide for days, or even for weeks, concealed in safety.
Many of the ancient manor houses have endured the wear and tear of centuries. Some are still surrounded with water, and some have kept their hidden chambers as they were.
The charming hall of Speke has its moat hidden with lawn and flower beds. Kenyon Peel and many others are drained. The pictures in this article are from my books on pilgrimages, the originals being photographs taken by another member of our Society, James Watts, of Abney Hall, Cheshire, Esquire.
Since every house contained its secret chamber it may be thought the secret could be easily discovered, but this was not so.
The buildings were irregular, with walls of varying thickness and rooms lined with oaken panelling. The chimneys were immense, and round them or up them was the commonest place for the hidden closet, for there it could be kept warm and ventilated by another flue.
If it were up the chimney it could not be used when the fire was lit, and if the fugitive were up and the pursuers lit a fire to smoke him out he would have to cough or burn.
At Broughton Hall, in Staffordshire, a few miles over the Cheshire border, there are rough steps up the chimney in the hall for about eighteen feet, a small passage then branched oif into a good-sized room that had no window or other communication.
This room has a separate staircase now and it is used as a smokeroom. The best example of a secret closet or closets in good preservation is at Pitchford Hall, near Shrewsbury, and at Park Hall, near Oswestry, are remains of some that were very like them.
In a panelled room on the upper floor a certain panel, the fourth or fifth from the chimney breast, will slide sideways if pushed in a particular manner.
The hand can then be inserted and a bolt withdrawn. Then, if anyone find the first closet it is empty, and the trap will not pull up while the door is open and across it.
From the lower closet there is a pipe and communication to a cupboard in the drawing- room, and there is also a ladder, and access to the outer air gives another chance for freedom.
From the bottom a sub- terranean passage is said to lead to the park and to the river. I have seen the closet and the ladder, but have not ventured below.
A part of Gwydyr Castle is built up from top to bottom without any entrance, and no one knows what is inside. No more ghosts are wanted.
The great rambling stairs of the old houses provided many secret rooms. They were generally low and dark, and more uncomfortable than those beside chimneys.
On my last visit to Handforth Hall I plainly saw the ancient hiding hole, though no one had noticed it, and I had never looked for any when I had been there years before.
At Harvington Hall, in Worcestershire, there is an enormous empty house with a low dark room between the other rooms above, below, and around.
It might hold a troop of soldiers, and access to it is obtained by pulling aside three steps at a corner in the stairs. At Shipton Hall, in Salop, is another of the big rooms between the floors of the house.
To enter this a ladder to a trapdoor in the ceiling of the kitchen is required. The other secret room in the house, that is generally shown as his, was, I believe, used by Colonel Carless.
At the wonderful house of Compton Wynyates there is a council chamber in the tower where no outsider can listen or look in, for it fills the entire floor.
It has one stairway from below, but three to the higher regions. There are six doors to this small council chamber, and one closet has pulleys and ropes for a flying descent to earth.
It is exceedingly well planned for secret meetings and escape, remorselessly showing us the terrible anxieties and perils of Merry England in the olden time.
At Baddesley Clinton, where the grey walls rise straight up from the waters of the moat, there is inscribed over the chapel portal that the Catholic faith never changes, and this old home of it has probably changed less than any other of its age.
The front door was made in , the wages charged being fivepence a day, and the bill for it is now in the house. About the level of the water a passage runs all round the house, with slits for the flight of arrows and bullets.
At the furthest corner from the drawbridge is a small trapdoor and a long plank in the secret passage that can be pushed through the doorway to the opposite bank of the moatv On this plank anyone could safely cross the water here in its narrowest part.
A closet, now filled with preserves and pickles, has the bolts inside the door, having been little altered since the days when priests were here kept preserved or in pickle.
Starvation forced them into surrender, though Father Garnet, the superior of the Jesuits, and his companion had been fed by sweetmeats and marmalade, with cawdle broth and warm drinks, that were passed to them down a reed from one chimney flue to another.
There were thirteen hiding holes in that house, and several were never discovered. The house is now destroyed, and it is the only one mentioned in this article that I have not seen and entered.
Its architect was Owen, a helper of Father Garnet, and he died under the torture of the rack. The well-known Jesuit college of Stonyhurst, that was formerly the home of the Shireburns, had several secret closets, but the rebuildings in disclosed their secrets.
Two of them contained ninety and thirty guineas of the reign of James II. In the beautiful old castle of Treago, where the walls of the four corner towers are six feet thick, a long forgotten room was lately found at the top of a tower, with a tiny window, fireplace, and folding desk.
In the two last named, the persecuting religion in the one became the persecuted in the other, and vice versa; but in the first, the persecution had nothing to do with religion, being merely a matter of business.
It is well to note that all sorts and conditions of men used these hiding holes, and I believe that every house of any size had one or more of them in the days when England was called merry.
It is well known the merry monarch was hidden in several. Woolf told him his secret closet was known to the Parliamentarians, who had his son a prisoner, and therefore the royal fugitive slept with the mice in the big barn.
That hiding hole in which the king did not sleep is now a cupboard, but the barn is still preserved, and we found and photographed it.
On the next day Dick Pendrill took him to Boscobel, and the oak that became royal to its own destruction.
At Orleton Court, where the poet Pope endured his courting and the Blounts have owned for many genera- tions, there is a hiding hole up the big chimney in the hall.
There is another at the moated house of Birtsmorton, where the future Cardinal Wolsey was a tutor, and had the bad luck to come under the baneful shadow of "the ragged stone" of the Malvern hills.
It rests under the shelter of the castle that Roger of Montgomery built on high to dominate Powys- land, the paradise of the Cymry.
Little Moreton Hall should be well known to all our neighbourhood. Plowden Hall I merely mention, and pass on to end this disjointed chapter with the surprising tale that in our own gloomy, grimy, greasy, smoky, dirty, noisy Manchester, kind fate and good luck have preserved its oldest house, with the hiding holes therein or what remains of them.
It was my fate on a dark and dismal night to try to amuse our learned Society by telling to them tales about hiding holes, and as Mr.
Browne, the House Governor of the Chetham Hospital, was intently listening, I asked him if there were any left in his rambling halls. One in his bedroom was only known to himself and his wife, for there he hid his best china and curiosities, but I could see them all in the daylight.
Half way up the Jacobean staircase there is a wooden panel where once there was a stone that would turn in the wall and disclose a recess, into which a man might scramble, and find a chamber above and behind the hall- fire in the inglenook.
He might there be warm and comfortable with his companions, and if found out they could scramble further up the big chimney and get out on to the roof.
There are remains of other hiding holes in the older buildings, but I will only mention a third, the one in Mr.
In the panelling beside the fireplace is an ancient cupboard or recess, and from it there used to be access to another small closet above the fireplace, and a narrow passage that Mr.
Browne told me he had crawled along, leads to a window from whence a man might drop into the hall. It is a great omission from the records of our Society that they have no account of the grand old hall, hospital, college, and library, whose hospitality we enjoy.
The place itself is utterly unknown to millions who pass by it in a never ending stream. The few who do know it cannot agree upon its proper name or the pronunciation of its name.
The present institution or charity began on the 5th of August St. A very suitable motto was taken: There is now an excellent library, free to all comers, of seventy thousand volumes.
From the dais of the older hall, the one now used as the kitchen. All down the long ages of our English history our fathers may have talked of peace, but they loved to fight.
Friends were hard to tell from foes or foes from friends, and a timely refuge in a secret spot was often a blessing to many.
The hunters of one day might themselves be hunted the next. Cavalier and Roundhead, Priest and Quaker, each and all had their turn, and many a life has been saved in the hiding holes of old houses.
THOSE who are interested in the historic traditions of Manchester may be pleased to learn that a fresh document concerning the collegiation of the parish church has come to light through the labours of the British agent at the Vatican Library, and is summarised in the recently published volume of his Calendar of Papal Letters issued under the direction of the Master of the Rolls vol.
One of the great dates of Manchester history is the year , when Thomas de la Warre the venerable rector of the old church , who had become Lord de la Warre and had succeeded to the barony by the decease of his elder brother, used his great wealth in erecting the parish church into a collegiate church, with a warden and eight chaplains.
He gives in si. In doing so he notes the absence of any evidence as to the Papal confirmation, which is usually to be found in the cases of the coUegiation and appropriation of churches.
He even advances some reasons to explain the absence or non-existence of any such document. He felt that it was probable that such sanction would be thought necessary, but held that the matter was open to doubt.
It will be observed that in the brief in which Pope Martin V. Bishop Langley took the leading part in the great work, and remained to his death the friend and benefactor of the Manchester College.
His career as sketched in the Dic- tionary of National Biography reveals him as one of the most brilliant of the great prince-bishops of the olden time.
Hiis que pro divini cultus augmento et animarum salute provide facta sunt, ut illibata persistant libenter cum a Nobis petitur, Apostolici muniminis adjicimus firmitatem.
See notes and index, Calendar of P. Et insuper, idem "Willelmus Episcopus Thome Episcopo et Thome la Warre supradictis condendi et edendi ordinaciones et Statuta racionabilia in ea parte per ipsum tamen Willelmum Episcopum seu successorem suum, confirmanda et approbanda concessit facultatem, constitutis nichilominus per eum super fructibus, redditibus et proventibus predictis quadraginta mense sue Episcopali Lichefeldensi et viginta decano et Capitulo Lichfeldensi ac aliis viginta solidis monete Anglie Archidiacono praefatis pro mense et ecclesie Lichefeldensis et Archidiaconatus praedictorum indemnitate singulis annis per magistrum et Capellanos supradictos imperpetuum etiam sub ecclesie censure districtione exsolvendis prout in patentibus ipsius Willelmi Episcopi super inde confectis Uteris plenius continetur.
Quare pro parte dictorum Thome Episcopi et condominorum ac Rectoris Nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut erection! Nos, igitur, quia de praemissis per prefatas literas quas in Cancellaria nostra diligenterinspici fecimusnobis plenariaextitit facta fides [hujusmodi supplicationibus inclinati]t erectionem, ordinacionem et concessionem praedictas [et quaecumque inde secuta rata et grata habentes eajf auctoritate Apostolica tenore praesentium ex certa scientia confirmamus et praesentis scripti patrocinio communimus.
Et nichilominus eidem Thome Episcopo Statuta et ordinaciones salubria racionabilia et honesta circa ecclesie et collegii praedictorum statum et regimen quocies sibi videbitur, edendi et tam ea que iam edita sunt quam ilia que ipsum quandocumque edere continget corrigendi, interpretandi, declarandi seu in melius commutandi, vel ea prorsus tollendi et destituendi plenam et liberam tenore praesentium concedimus facultatem.
Non obstantibus constitutionibus Apostolicis ceterisque contrariis qui- buscumque. Notarius, P etrus de C assatiis. J [Omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostrae.
A petition was recently laid before us on the part of our venerable brother, Thomas, Bishop of Durham, and of our beloved sons, John Henege, Nicholas Motte, Richard Lombard, Richard Fryth, co-lords of the Manor of Mamcestre, in the diocese of Lichfield, and also of Thomas la Warre, rector of the parish.
Mary of the said place, in which it was stated: And, moreover, the said Bishop William granted to the aforesaid Bishop Thomas and Thomas la Warre the power of framing and issuing reasonable ordinances and statutes in that respect, to be approved and confirmed, however, by the said Bishop William or his successors: And, not the less, we give by tenor of these presents to the said Bishop Thomas full and free power to make, as often as it will seem to him [expedient], statutes and ordinances which are useful, reasonable, and just con- cerning the state and governance of the aforesaid church and college, and to correct, interpret, explain, alter for the better, or totally abrogate and abolish both those which are already made and those which he may happen to make at any future time ; apostolic constitutions and other things whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding.
Given at Rome from St. FROM a number of deeds and documents the following account of Dumptington and some of its inhabitants has been compiled.
The sketch pedigree of the Holcroft family, derived from these and other sources, will save repetition of numerous names and dates. The family was probably an offshoot of yeomen who took their name from Holcroft on the north side of Chat Moss, and some of whom grew rich on the spoil of the monasteries in the time of King Henry VIII.
The latter made his will in , but it was not proved till ten years later, and in it mention made of his wife Elizabeth whose will was proved: The witnesses were Henry Smith administra- tion with inventory granted at Chester in and John Smith.
The will was sealed with a device or monogram of two capital letters H, one above the other, with a figure 4 appended beneath and lying on its face with its tail crossed.
The younger son Henry lived at Rixton, but Thomas continued as a yeoman at Dumplington, which is a small hamlet or semi-independent township on the south side of the river Irwell, within the vast township of Barton-upon-Irwell, in the parish of Eccles.
It is about half a mile south of the village of Barton, and lies between the similar hamlets of Bromyhurst on the west and Wickleswick on the east.
It has for a long time belonged almost entirely to the Traffords of Trafiford. In Sygerith de Dumplinton for twenty shillings sterling quitclaimed to Robert Grelley, lord of Man- chester, and his heirs in perpetuity all her right in forty acres of land, with appurtenances, in Dumplinton, of which Grelley was tenant Lancashire Fines, vol.
A copy of this grant, which came into the possession of the Traffords, is contained in the Raines MSS. Farrer at the "Old Manchester" Exhibition in items 88 and The derivation of this quaint place-name is unknown.
It may be compared with Puddington, in Wirral, and Pye-croft, which was a locality on the confines of Ard- wick and Gorton, in Manchester parish.
Dumplington is not, however, a mere culinary nickname like the neighbouring "Black-pudding Town" Stretford , and "Eel-pie" or "Snig-pie Town" Flixton.
The Holcroft deeds describe " Roughfield," before , as having been enclosed from "Dumplington Moor," and the family note-book mentions getting and drawing turfs, filling up moss-pits, and payments of moss rents.
In , Thomas Holcroft, No. The Holcroft documents comprised another Flixton deed, dated , whereby William Jones, of Flixton, yeoman, gave Henry Hall, of Barton, yeoman, a right to cut a sluice across Ebby-cross Field, Flixton, and across a road into Wedding Withen or Willow?
Lane, widow, in ; of Roger Smith, of Flixton, in ; of Richard Smith, of Flixton, yeoman, in ; of Margaret Smith, of Davy Hulme, widow, in ; and for Henry Smith, of Dumplington, administration, with inventory, was granted in May 5, , paid by Henry Holcroft at Courte for being admitted In , Henry Holcroft attested a deed whereby Alice Wallworke, of Intacke in Dumplington or Bromyhurst , within Barton, widow, gave various articles to her son John and her daughter, who was a minor.
On April 13th, i6q4, Thomas Holcroft No. In September, , Mary Holcroft, spinster, assigned to her brother Henry the two acres which had formed " half the Coney Warren " in Dumplington, and were formerly held by Robert Rowson, deceased, and Henry Knight, of Dumplington.
In January, , the same John Rogerson agreed with his son Robert, of Dumplington, husbandman, to let Robert have, for three years, at eight pounds rent, his house, outhousing, Moss-field, a field of John Gregoryt on Bromyhurst Moor, next the High-gate highway Lane, also the orchard and croft on the west end and north side of the house, reserving to the father a bedroom and room in the house to work at his basketmaking, and a right to store his basket rods in the chamber above; also a place at the fire, in return for finding half the turfs, and Ann Rogerson J was to find the other half.
Chester, husbandman, who held a cottage and land at Carrington under a lease dated January i8th, , from George, earl of Warrington, for the lives of George and his brothers John and William Royle.
Legacies were also given to Elizabeth, wife of Edward Roe, of Eccles, weaver ; Robert Heaward, of Sale, husbandman ; Sarah, wife of John Beate, of Man- chester, weaver; and Alice, wife of William Gee, of Altringham, carpenter, and similar releases were given for those legacies.
Possibly Elizabeth, Sarah, and Alice, and Mrs. Heaward were daughters of James Knight. The witnesses were Samuel Hardman and James Gee. To strengthen his position Thomas Holcroft, on November 8th, , paid Squire Trafford a further five pounds in respect of the assignment of the Rough Field.
In the buildings included an old house and a new one which was then called the Schoolhouse. The Moorfield lay on the south side of the Schoolhouse.
Many of these names appear on the map made in , for John Trafford, Esquire. In consequence of the death and will of Thomas, the second, the farm had to be divided between Henry Holcroft, of Dumplington, and Henry Holcroft, of Rixton.
Thomas Warburton on May 13th, , divided it as follows: The capital sunk in acquiring the land on lease and improvements is stated as follows on page 98 of the note-book: The like part of ye Ould Estate - Nov.
The like other part - -. Her brother Henry, in , married Margaret, daughter of Matthew Shawcross, of Bent Lanes, within Barton township, and John Holcroft thereupon agreed that after his own death his brother Henry should succeed to his share in the farm, unless John married, and except so far as John might need "to maintain his degree and place by reason of sickness.
The lessee was to repair water banks and fenders, and to grind all corn and grain used on the premises at Barton Manor Mill, and he was to find quarters for a hound or beagle.
Probably the leases to the Holcrofts contained very similar provisions, and from time to time the leases were renewed before they ran out.
Rogers, was paid 24s. Kenyon clerk of the peace and justices," and 2s. Rogers for "getting it signed" or registered.
The lessee, Henry Holcroft, made his will in , when he was very ill. In it he mentions " my old house where I now dwell and buildings belonging," and directed that his younger children were to have " such room for cohabitation during singleness and chast conversation of bodys" as his wife Margaret and his brother John should appoint.
Henry recovered from his illness and did not die till five years later, leaving Margaret his widow to take charge of the farm during the minority of his children.
In December, , she renewed the lease of the four acres enclosed from the moor, with the housing on it, for the lives of her sons Thomas, born in , Henry, born in , and James, born in ; and in the following May she succeeded in renewing the other lease for the lives of Peter Heywood and her sons Thomas and Henry.
His goods included a chaffbed, a trest, pewter dishes and spoons, six ceilt chairs, 3- piggan, skelett, bac spittle, chining knife, salt-pye, pair of Goberts, fall board, washing maden, bow, two pairs of looms, three leaths, seven suttles, and a mail meal box.
These not infrequent renders of half a hen probably relate back to times when a farm was divided and the services halved, for in practice there is little doubt that the landlord always preferred the money equivalent.
In William Bennet made a survey of the Trafford estates, and Dumplington then contained: I I 20 3 16 I 2 29 I 3 18 6 12 3 2 17 2 36 3 3 14 2 I 19 2 22 I 23 I 3 39 I 37 I 2 14 3 37 3 23 12 2 9 3 38 9 Long Croft ; fallen in April 23rd, John Holcroft made his will in and died in ; his son John made his will in March, , and left his farm to his sons Matthew, James, and Thomas.
Matthew, who died in , was the last of the Dumplington yeoman of the family. In his holding was transferred to Adam Stott, and his effects were valued at ;f, and included two bread peels; shafts, leading, and pin hames; a tun dish, salting flag; hand and reaching pikels; cart strokes arms and bushes; gullontines and dock fork; old beams and maw mallet ; three ridge-worths; a summer- work harrow, also push, double wood, and iron plows.
The family account and note-book, bound in dark leather, measuring 6in. The inventories made in , , , , and all ignore books. In , however, Betty Holcroft owned a large map, valued at is.
In John and Thomas Holcroft were at school with Martha Moreton and James Parcivall, probably at the Schoolhouse close at hand, and in they were at school with John Tonge, who acted as a land surveyor as well as schoolmaster, and measured various fields from time to time for the Holcrofts.
An explanation of the "Golden Rule, or Rule of Three," set out in the note- book is probably due to Mr. The size of many of the fields is quoted in " measure of plowing," which differed from the ordinary measurement.
However slender their library may have been, the Holcrofts, about and , had been learning a kind of short-hand, and the note-book contains three specimens, which Mr.
The samples given in the note-book are as follows, the italics indicating the letters written in this style: Borrowed of John Knight 40s.
Soe Lord helpe thy servant yt putteth his trust in thee. Take cheekin-weed, camnat, mother-time, and green- sniddle; hack ym and fry ym in fresh butter.
The Chappie att Monton was besieged, and livered to the Mobb of Manchester. Went with souldiers to Wiggin, spent 3s. The fields called Dumplington and Greenfield were marled in six days beginning June 4th, There was "brueing hops and barmm," and 4s.
The Holcrofts used coal besides turf, and their accounts mention quarters, baskets, and hoops of cannel, blend-fire, and fire, which they procured from Dixon Green, north of Worsley.
They reckoned farm produce by thraves, strikes, hoops, windles, and loads, and they quoted land by the " foe," or fall, or perch, of seven yards in length.
Like other farmers, the family eked out their living by weaving, and their accounts contain the following items: Josiah Barlow flfor making two pairs of looms, 15 days, iis.
Hired to Thomas Roc one fifustian loome at 4s. The other loom let to James Barlow at 4s. John Turner, for weaving 24 yards of cloth in the 38 Reed, 6s.
Weaving 31 yards of cloth, 3d. James Joines hired a broadloome of me. Weaving 17 yards of cloth in ye 40th Reed, 3d. Leach to be bleached.
For their clothes they bought camlet, ferrit, sheloone, sarge; scotch, holland, flaxen and plain cloth; gladin, carsey, more mohair?
They wore clogs, shoon, and splatterdashes. In they spent 4s. In the same year they paid Eliz. Newton for sheering an acre Lane, measure , 5s. In their " rates and taxes " included two fifteens paid to one constable, and three days later four more to another, which may have been in respect of land held by them north and south of the Irwell, which divided the township of Barton into " this side water " and " further- side water.
As the local government of the huge township of Barton was in a very anomalous state, for some purposes being a manorial? Further south side water - - - - Barton Towne Irlam Cadeshead Eccles Monton 01 00 00 01 00 01 One fifteen in Barton is - - - 00 One shilling through Barton quarter is divided as foUoweth: Further side water is Barton Towne - Irlam - - - iiio Cadeshead iioo Eccles Monton - - - - -- - - - oiio The Barton overseers of the poor were three, and were appointed in some sort of rotation through the various hamlets, after the order called "House-Row," thus: Cook, and John fifreeman.
Heyes son, and young Thornely, Oversers. Cooke, Samuel Kirshaw, Willm. Bent, Deputy Constable for Lostock. He was also Sworn Constable for Barton for half a year.
The Deputy Constables were Ro: George Birch and Thos. This lay is only through Barton and further side water, and done by the consent of Mr. Trafford," as lord of the manor.
The notice was signed by Th: Smith, and Edward Clarkson. Each hamlet appears to have appointed its own highway surveyors, in the same way that held good for townships in Manchester parish, but the parish liability to repair its highways remained in doubt.
In Manchester the point was cleared up and the parish was in future exempted by a special Act of Parliament passed in , and about half a century later the hamlets of Barton, south of the Irwell, were linked together into a highway board.
The pte of the highway yt belongeth to Dumplington begins at the further doore cheeking that opens to goe ovr the inn- seller at the bowleing green, and ends about a yarde and a half short of the yate and stoope yt opens into John Burch great field, containing in length eighteen roods, fiour yards and a half; And likewise Barton pte is ye same in length.
Test, by us Henry Knight, Thos. Holcroft, William Cooke, senr. John Edge being the cash-keeper. In administration was granted at Chester for the goods of William Jackson, of Dumplington, innkeeper, and in the will of Humphrey Newton, of Bromihurst, innkeeper, was proved at Chester.
The bridge had been most likely built at the expense of the county shortly before to remove the dangers and inconveniences caused by floods. The site of the old ferry is indicated by the field-names "Warth" meaning ford and "Boat-field.
Fray, of Manchester, accountant. For the further enlightenment of future ages as to man and manners in this part of Lancashire, the family note- book has been presented to the Manchester Reference Library.
THE annexed list comprises the names that can now be traced, but probably many have disappeared unrecorded. The nominative form with f signifies fecit made it ; whilst the genitive case with o or of means officina workshop ; m with the genitive should be read " by the hand of," e.
The majority of the specimens have been found near the top, and on the south side of Church Street, where the Co-operative buildings now stand.
Other names were found recently when a sewer was laid in China Lane, which laid bare part of the old Wery Wall or, as we now know, "Walls," for a double Murus of hewn stones, bedded in blue clay and divided by a ditch ten feet wide, was found.
Into this ditch had been pitched many broken vases of the embossed type of Gallo-Roman ware, and also Castor and Upchurch wares.
This deposit has been previously dug over, so that Bristol pipes and lava querns are mixed together. The soil, which is a gritty, sandy loam, has admirably preserved the pottery fragments, which have been found from ten to fourteen feet below the present ground-level.
The potters were workmen needing not to be ashamed of their handiwork, and their names are deservedly recorded in vols vii. The particulars from the Corpus have been inserted by Mr.
May, who also furnishes a descriptive list of the ornamented fragments. Corpus Inscfiptionum Latinarum, Patellae. Similar lists in the volume relating to the three Gauls and two Germanias.
Roman Lancashire, by W. The Storey Institute, Lancaster. London, Catalogue of London Antiquities, by C. List in Journal 0] Arch, and Hist.
List in Roman Manchester, by Charles Roeder. La Graufesenque Condatomagus, in the territory of the Ruteni. Gallia Narbonensis , at the confluence of the Tarn and Dourbie.
Site of potteries in the territory of the Gabali, Lozere. Site of potteries Tres Tabemae in Rhenish Bavaria.
Site of potteries on Tarn, near Gaillac, France. Unless otherwise specified the fragments are in private collections. At 12 ancient sites.
At five ancient sites. At 16 ancient sites. At nine ancient sites. Germanic, found Germanic, found C. Lancaster, also at Lond.
At three ancient sites. At four ancient sites. At 10 ancient sites. At 18 ancient sites. At seven ancient sites. At II ancient sites.
At 52 ancient sites. This name may refer to more than one potter. At 22 ancient sites. At 29 ancient sites. At 17 ancient sites. Bron, Fried- berg, Asberg.
Two examples, one of which is on a perfect vessel. At 41 ancient sites. At six ancient sites. At 33 ancient sites.
At 22 ancient sites, or at nine ancient sites. At 13 ancient sites. At 24 ancient sites. Lancashire Gazette, October, At 45 ancient sites. At 21 ancient sites.
At 20 ancient sites. P See Roman Lancashire. York, Manchester ; also at A. Found also on plain vessel see List No. Bowl 30, raised letters outside among ornaments.
For description of animal figures see No. Bowl 37, raised letters reversed outside among ornaments. At 32 ancient sites.
Bowl 37, raised letters outside among ornaments. Bowl 37, written in the mould with the stylus and in reversed raised letters outside below ornaments.
Bowl 37, sunk letters reversed on a raised label outside among ornaments. For description of the animal figure see Mr.
Two examples of dififering shape and clay, each stamped in duplicate. Found at Quemmore, three miles to east of Lancaster.
THE following list includes one hundred and twenty-- seven fragments of the red glazed moulded pottery universally spoken of on the Continent as terra sigillata figured pottery and in this country as Samian, found in or near the ancient town of Lancaster, and collected at considerable trouble and expense by a few private indi- viduals of more than usual public spirit and enlightened taste, their names being Miss A.
Roper, Hamer, and Councillor Heald. Walters, of the British Museum, published in I How far the divisions and order of arrangement upon the subjoined list have been made to conform to these fixed points will be briefly indicated.
The similarity of the name of the potter volvs envs on a chalice-shaped vase dis- covered in the heart of Roanne to that of a well-known potter of the Republican period, c.
Here the Roman road between Rodez Segodunum and Lodeve Luteva enters the Condatomagus plain of confluence of the Tabula Peutingeriana, a region known as the Graufesenque and now a desert, where no apparent trace of ancient structures marks the spot.
The moulds and vases obtained there belong to the same period as those of the Graufesenque. Seven kilo- metres to the west is the Allier, which allowed pottery transmitted by boat to easily gain the course of the Loire.
The similar vases of Lezoux are most plentiful in ancient camps and cities of the three Gaulish and two German provinces and the occupied portion of Britain as far as the estuaries of the Forth and Clyde, and when these main facts are considered along with the quantity of terra sigillata specimens in the British and other museums, the list of four hundred and fifty names of Gaulish potters on plain vases collected in London alone, the number of vases recovered by dredging from the Pan Rock, Whitstable, and the statistics of the extra- ordinary abundance of the products of the Graufesenque — 1 POTTERY FOUND AT LANCASTER.
Alfred Edward Plicque a naturalised American in , comprising a collection of vases, punches, and restored moulds, from which a number of mouldings have been taken by M.
Constancias during the nineteenth century. It therefore seems strange that the enormous collections of Dr. Plicque, requiring one hundred and thirty-five cases for their removal, were only acquired by the French national museum of St.
The numbers employed in the list for indicating the shape are those proposed by Dragendorff and generally adopted by archaeologists for the varieties known to him at the time of writing, from i to Others up to 75 have been added by Dechelette.
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